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Which of the following people reached North America first?
Question 1 Explanation:
Centuries before Columbus’s arrival in the New World, archaeologists have found evidence proving that Viking explorers had reached the North American territory now known as Newfoundland, as early as 1000 AD.
Which of the following is the primary reason that European rulers became interested in trans-Atlantic exploration beginning in the 15th century?
They were curious about whether or not the world was round.
They were seeking an oversea trade route to Asia.
They wanted to become allies with Western Hemisphere natives.
They were looking to relocate their European empires to a new continent.
Question 2 Explanation:
Trade with Asia was very profitable for Europeans, however it was also very dangerous. The early trade routes were fraught with danger of being robbed or succumbing to harsh environmental obstacles. As a result, there was much to be gained by finding a safer, more direct route.
Which of the following played a key role in the European Age of Exploration that emerged in the 15th and 16th centuries?
Advancements in sea-faring technology
New lands with the possibility for European expansion
An interest in developing a sea route to Asia for trade
All of the above
Question 3 Explanation:
The combination of better ships, better navigation techniques, and the possibilities for economic gain drew European rulers to the New World in the 15th and 16th centuries. The potential rewards of successful expeditions had, for the first time, proved to outweigh the risks.
Christopher Columbus sailed for the New World on behalf of which European country?
Question 4 Explanation:
Though Christopher Columbus was a Genoan, he was unable to receive support for his expedition to North America from his home country. Instead, Columbus turned to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to finance his journeys to the New World.
What was the goal of Columbus’s second voyage to the New World?
To establish permanent colonies in the New World
To convert natives to Christianity
To find a sea route to Asia
All of the above
Question 5 Explanation:
Columbus's second voyage was a mission of colonization and exploration. He was given 17 ships and over 1,000 men. He also brought domesticated animals, including horses, pigs, and cattle. His orders were to expand the settlement on Hispaniola, convert natives to Christianity, and continue his search for Japan and China.
Which of the following is true about the Treaty of Tordesillas?
It established peace between the Spanish in North America and their neighboring native cultures.
It ended a long-standing military conflict between Spain and Portugal.
It was created to avoid conflicts between Catholic Church and the Church of England.
It created a boundary line to divide the land discovered in the New World between Spain and Portugal.
Question 6 Explanation:
The Treaty of Tordesillas played a pivotal role in the future colonization of the New World. Following the discovery of the New World by Columbus, the Spanish and Portuguese were both eager to stake claims in the territory. The Treaty of Tordesillas was put in place to avoid potential disputes over land claims.
Which of the following was an advantage for the Spanish conquistadors in their efforts to defeat larger native armies in Central and South America?
A lack of unity between native cultures
The use of horses
All of the above
Question 7 Explanation:
The Spanish did not need to have superior numbers to defeat the native cultures since they had significant advantages in technology and tactics. The inability of the native cultures to work together against the strength of the European weapons would inevitably be a key part of their collective downfall.
Which of the following European explorers was the first to complete an eastern all-sea route to Asia?
Vasco da Gama
Question 8 Explanation:
In 1497, Vasco da Gama journeyed around Africa’s treacherous Cape of Good Hope. He arrived safely in Calicut, India the following year becoming the first European to complete such a journey.
Who was the first European explorer to discover the Pacific Ocean?
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Question 9 Explanation:
Balboa’s 1510 expedition through Panama resulted in Europe’s first realization that there was another ocean on the western side of the New World.
___________ was the first Spaniard to land on the mainland of North America. His 1513 expedition sought to find gold as well as the fabled Fountain of Youth in the land now known as Florida.
Juan Ponce de León
Vasco da Gama
Question 10 Explanation:
Ponce de León’s expedition was not successful, however it did lay the groundwork for the founding of St. Augustine, the first European military fort on the North American mainland.
Which of the following European explorers was the first to chart the east coast of what is now the United States?
Giovanni da Verrazzano
Question 11 Explanation:
Verrazzano was looking for a “Northwest Passage” through the Americas to get to Asia. Instead, he wound up travelling and mapping the North American coastline from Nova Scotia to the Carolinas.
Which Spanish explorer perished before he could complete his part in the first voyage to circumnavigate the globe?
Hernando de Soto
Question 12 Explanation:
Magellan underestimated the length of his journey and his crew suffered greatly because of his miscalculation. Less than 10% of Magellan’s men actually survived the famed trip around the world. Magellan himself was killed in a conflict with a tribe he and his men encountered in the Philippines.
Which conquistador conquered the Aztec Empire?
Question 13 Explanation:
Hernán Cortés and his forces decimated the Aztec Empire through a campaign of deception and ruthless aggression. The vast quantities of gold Cortés was able to plunder helped feed the frenzy to pursue similar riches in other parts of New Spain.
What happened to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan?
It was deemed a poor excuse for a city and left alone by Cortés.
Cortés had it destroyed and Mexico City was built in its place.
It was taken over by invading Inca armies and renamed.
Historians are uncertain about the fate of Tenochtitlan.
Question 14 Explanation:
The Aztec leader Montezuma tried, in vain, to bargain with Cortés to save his culture’s capital. Cortés razed the city, claimed all of the Aztec territory for Spain, and built the Spanish colonial capital on the site.
Which conquistador conquered the Inca Empire?
Question 15 Explanation:
Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who led the expedition that conquered the Inca Empire, in what is now Peru. In 1532 he captured and killed the Incan emperor Atahualpa, and claimed the lands for Spain.
Which of the following best describes an encomienda?
A Spanish colonial plantation system that relied on forced Native American labor
A Spanish treaty with Native Americans
A Spanish religious outpost designed to convert Native Americans to Christianity
None of the above
Question 16 Explanation:
Encomiendas were plantation estates that were marked by cruel treatment and harsh working conditions for the Native Americans forced to labor within them.
The Spanish created complexes known as ____________ in the Western Hemisphere as bases to house priests and other Catholic Church personnel. One of their main goals was to provide a launching point to spread the beliefs and doctrines of the Catholic Church to the native populations.
Question 17 Explanation:
Missions were set up primarily for their religious purposes, but they were sometimes used for additional functions involving agriculture, trade, and defense.
Who is the English sea captain known for raiding Spanish colonies and being the first captain to successfully circumnavigate the globe?
Question 18 Explanation:
While Magellan’s crew successfully completed the first circumnavigation on record, Magellan died before the trip’s completion. Drake’s voyage was not only historic, but profitable; Drake returned to England with a trove of Spanish riches. Drake’s attacks on Spanish colonial cities made him a prime target of the Spanish who labeled him a pirate. In 1588, while serving as the vice admiral of the English fleet, Drake defeated the powerful Spanish Armada.
What was the primary purpose of the Spanish colonies there were established in North America in the early 1500s?
To foster friendship between Spaniards and Native Americans
To establish religious freedom for Spaniards fleeing Europe
To grow crops for Spain
To find gold and to spread Christianity
Question 19 Explanation:
Spain’s primary interest in the New World was acquiring wealth and spreading their cultural reach. As a result, many of the native civilizations in Central and South America were plundered and subjected to immense cultural pressure to conform to tenets of the Roman Catholic faith.
Where did the Spanish turn to replace their workforce in New Spain after many of their Native Americans slaves perished?
Question 20 Explanation:
The Native Americans who were forced to work for the Spanish colonies died off at alarming rates due to disease and poor treatment. To replace these workers, Spain began importing Africans to be used as slave laborers in the New World, thus beginning the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.
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