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What was the significance of the verdict in the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas?
It maintained that segregation would remain in American’s public schools if the local communities voted in support of it.
It proclaimed that the notion of “separate but equal” violated the Fourteenth Amendment.
It required local municipalities to provide additional funding to ensure segregated schools were of equal quality.
It required all local board of education decisions to be approved by outside overseers.
Question 1 Explanation:
Brown v. Board of Ed. was a landmark decision that set in motion the integration of America’s public schools. Chief Justice Thurgood Marshall determined that the very notion of segregation was inherently unequal — reversing the over fifty-year-old policy that had been backed by the Plessy v. Ferguson decision in 1896.
How was the federal government involved in the integration of Little Rock, Arkansas’s Central High School?
A federal court ruled that the governor had to admit the African American students. President Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort the African American students into the school past angry protestors.
President Eisenhower backed Arkansas governor Orval Faubus’s wish to delay integration due to the overwhelming public backlash.
President Eisenhower approved a federal grant to essentially bribe the Arkansas governor to allow integration to happen smoothly.
The federal government had little to do with the integration of Central High School other than the legal requirement that the school be integrated.
Question 2 Explanation:
Arkansas governor Orval Faubus resisted integration of the Little Rock school with all of his might. He mobilized the Arkansas National Guard and did little to discourage or even control local protesters. Once the federal courts ruled that Faubus had to allow the integration, Eisenhower backed the decision with a threat of force if the students were not allowed to enter the school; the Little Rock 9, as they were called, became the first African Americans to integrate Central High.
What was the end result of the Montgomery bus boycott?
The African American community in Montgomery eventually purchased and ran its own private bus company.
The local bus companies voluntarily reversed their policies in an effort to bring back their African American customers.
The Supreme Court ruled that bus segregation rules were unconstitutional and the boycott was lifted.
The boycott ultimately had no effect on changing policies of segregation on public transportation.
Question 3 Explanation:
Despite losing three quarters of their ridership due to the boycott, the Montgomery bus companies held firm in their resolve to maintain segregated seating on busses. It was not until the Supreme Court intervened and ordered the end to bus segregation that the boycott would end and African Americans would once again ride the Montgomery busses.
What types of protest methods did Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference advocate?
Civil rights workers were instructed to take up acts of civil disobedience to protest unjust laws in nonviolent ways.
Civil rights activists were told to fight for their rights by any means necessary.
Civil rights workers were directed to vandalize and deface the properties of known racists.
Civil rights activists were told to take no direct actions other than voting for progressive government leaders.
Question 4 Explanation:
Heavily influenced by the inspirational protests of Mahatma Gandhi, King saw civil disobedience as a way for African Americans to protest their unfair treatment while still adhering to moral and ethical principles.
How did the Freedom Riders seek to impact the Civil Rights Movement?
Members of the Ku Klux Klan called themselves “Freedom Riders” and travelled throughout the American South capturing, torturing, and lynching African Americans.
Members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee traveled by horseback throughout the American South to protest unfair segregation laws pertaining to busses and trains. They called themselves “Freedom Riders”.
Members from the Congress of Racial Equality called themselves “Freedom Riders” and rode busses into the American South to test the effectiveness of new anti-segregation laws pertaining to busses and interstate transportation.
Members of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference called themselves “Freedom Riders” and rode to Washington D.C. to protest the fact that the federal anti-segregation laws were not being enforced.
Question 5 Explanation:
The Freedom Riders faced horrible treatment throughout their bus rides through the South in the spring and summer of 1961. On many occasions they faced verbal abuses, unlawful arrests, and even physical assaults for their efforts to test the enforcement of desegregation laws. As a result of the Freedom Rides, the Supreme Court put forth more detailed desegregation rules that specifically focused on interstate travel and transportation centers.
Which of the following best describes the process by which James Meredith was enrolled as the first African American student at the University of Mississippi in 1962?
Meredith faced angry protests from students and community members, however the protests were fairly peaceful and subsided within a few days.
Meredith was prevented from enrolling or attending the University of Mississippi in person due to the large protests and student opposition. Meredith was forced to complete his degree from home through a distance learning program.
Due to the violent opposition to desegregating the school, Meredith had to be escorted by federal marshals in order to both enroll and complete his degree at the University of Mississippi.
Surprisingly, Meredith faced hardly any opposition to his enrollment at the University of Mississippi.
Question 6 Explanation:
James Meredith’s enrollment in the University of Mississippi caused violent riots resulting in the deaths of two people. President Kennedy himself had to intervene and send in federal troops to escort Meredith on campus to ensure his safety.
How did President Kennedy respond to the murder of NAACP official Medgar Evers in Jackson Mississippi in 1963?
Kennedy gave an impassioned speech on national television to the American people promoting equality and an end to racial segregation.
Kennedy personally drafted a letter of condolences to Evers’s widow.
Kennedy proposed new laws ending segregation by the service industry and making discriminatory employment practices illegal.
All of the above.
Question 7 Explanation:
Kennedy’s televised address to the nation following the assassination of Medgar Evers defined civil rights as a “moral issue” and set in motion Kennedy’s efforts to make federal civil rights legislation a priority.
What was President Kennedy’s political approach to addressing civil rights issues in America?
Kennedy advocated equality for African Americans, but knew legislation would have to be handled carefully to get through the Southern Democrats in Congress.
Kennedy used executive orders to enact groundbreaking civil rights laws without the need for Congress’s approval.
Kennedy believed civil rights issues were best left to the individual states.
Kennedy did not offer much leadership on civil rights issues.
Question 8 Explanation:
President Kennedy proposed a bill in 1963 that would serve as the framework for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Although Kennedy’s version stalled in Congress, President Johnson would take up the mantle following Kennedy’s assassination and continue the push for federal anti-discrimination protections.
What was the objective of the march on Washington D.C. that was organized by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the SCLC in August of 1963?
to violently protest the inaction of the federal government in civil rights matters
to intimidate federal officials with one of the largest gathering of African Americans in history
to demand reparations for the horrors and injustices of slavery
to bring together Americans of all backgrounds in a peaceful demonstration of support for Kennedy’s civil rights bill
Question 9 Explanation:
The 1963 march on Washington D.C. saw a quarter of a million Americans descend upon the nation’s capital to show their support for civil rights legislation. In a testament to the SCLC’s core beliefs, there were no reported incidents of physical altercations or violence. Also of note, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech as a part of the historic gathering.
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplish?
It provided financial bonuses to states that opted to desegregate public schools and public offices.
It ended racism in the United States.
It outlawed discrimination based upon race, gender, religion, or ethnicity in both employment practices and public affairs.
It required all government and business employers to hire one non-white employee for every three new hires.
Question 10 Explanation:
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of legislation for the civil rights movement. The law would give civil rights activists strong legal grounds to sue against discriminatory practices. Additionally, the law’s passage reflected the sizable growth in support the movement had generated over the past decade.
What was the main purpose of the SCLC’s march in Selma, Alabama in 1965?
to address barriers that were still preventing African Americans from being able to vote
to call for the arrest of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other prominent southern civil rights activists
to confront the Selma school district’s refusal to integrate their schools
to celebrate the success of the civil rights movement
Question 11 Explanation:
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the SCLC wanted to draw attention to the continued difficulties being faced by African Americans trying to exercise their right to vote. The march on Selma ended with a brutal attack on the marchers by the Alabama state police. The assault was filmed and broadcast on television across the nation resulting in massive public outcry and a huge boost in public support for the eventual passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
How did the Black Power movement differ from the civil rights efforts of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and his SCLC organization?
The Black Power movement was unable to gain much support from the African American community, whereas the SCLC and Dr. King’s efforts were widely supported.
The Black Power movement was more focused on separating from rather than integrating into what they felt was white American society.
The Black Power movement did not have strong leadership.
All of the above.
Question 12 Explanation:
Black Power was a movement focusing on African Americans developing their own communities and cultural enclaves that were separate from what they deemed the oppression and injustice of a racially charged American culture. The Black Power movement did not restrict their acts of protest and rebellion to nonviolent means as the more mainstream civil rights activists like Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had.
Which of the following groups was responsible for organizing African Americans in armed opposition against the police?
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
The Ku Klux Klan
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
The Black Panther Party
Question 13 Explanation:
The Black Panther Party took a markedly different approach to protesting the abuses and poverty suffered by African Americans (specifically in the inner cities). One of the key components of the Black Panther Party’s platform was advocating violence as a part of their “by any means necessary” approach to fighting for rights and legal reforms.
What was the reaction to the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968?
News of the assassination was slow to spread which muted the national response.
The nation came together to peacefully mourn the loss; the vigils served to unite America across racial lines and calm the racial tensions in American society.
Hundreds of American cities experienced violent and destructive riots.
All of the above.
Question 14 Explanation:
Following a rash of inner-city riots throughout the summers of 1965, 1966, and 1967, King’s assassination set off a firestorm of violent uprisings in hundreds of American cities. Racial tensions and divisions in American culture remained high.
How did activist Malcolm X evolve in his beliefs about how African Americans should advocate for themselves?
Throughout his life, Malcolm X advocated that African Americans should take increasingly more radical and violent actions against authority figures and white America.
Malcolm X abandoned his earlier racially charged notions of black supremacy and shifted to a focus on promoting self-determination and self-defense within the African American community.
Malcolm X shifted his focus from a passionate call for civil disobedience to the encouragement acts of violence and aggression towards the American government.
Malcolm X shifted from his initial beliefs in black supremacy to a push for full African American integration into American society.
Question 15 Explanation:
Malcolm X, as a member of the radical separatist group the Nation of Islam, initially pushed for African Americans to face their injustices head-on by any means necessary. Following an Islamic pilgrimage to Africa and the Middle East, Malcolm X ended his association with the Nation of Islam and its racist stance of black supremacy. Instead, he adopted a belief that African Americans would benefit more from a message of self-determination and self-defense than from further calls for aggression and violence.
Which of the following is an example of how women saw gains in their rights and treatment during the 1960s and 1970s?
The Equal Pay Act made it illegal for an employer to pay a woman less than a man for performing the same work.
Congress added the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution guaranteeing equal rights to all Americans regardless of sex.
Women were elected in such large numbers that they took the majority of the seats in the House of Representatives.
1972 marked the first time more women were admitted to four-year colleges than men.
Question 16 Explanation:
The Equal Pay Act was a landmark policy backed by President Kennedy in his efforts to promote gender equality. Women saw other gains during the 1960s and 1970s largely due to the efforts of rising feminist groups like the National Organization of Women. Over the two decades, women made strides in areas like ending unfair employment practices, access to federal education funding, college enrollment, and political representation.
What was the core issue raised by the strikes organized by Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers in the 1960s?
The farmers stood with civil rights leaders in promoting increased access to legal and voting rights for minorities.
The farmers pushed for better trade deals with foreign nations.
The farmers wanted higher wages, safer working conditions, and a shorter work day.
The farmers wanted federal funding to develop better and more efficient farming technologies.
Question 17 Explanation:
Cesar Chavez organized migrant farm workers in an effort to secure a better life for the laborers who were responsible for producing the majority of the nation’s food supply. These predominantly Mexican American workers were travelling between farms trying to secure work, and getting paid low wages. Some Americans stood by the workers and their strike efforts by refusing to buy certain farm products. These successful boycotts of farm produce helped the United Farm Workers gain increases in wages and more agreeable working conditions.
What major 1975 voting rights action helped grant increased political access to Hispanic Americans?
Hispanic American citizens were legally allowed to vote in American federal elections.
Hispanic Americans citizens were allowed to run for political office for the first time.
Election and voting materials had to be made available in other languages to accommodate Americans who were not fluent in English.
American immigrants from the Caribbean as well as Central and South America only had to be residents of the United States for 2 months before being offered citizenship.
Question 18 Explanation:
The Hispanic American population surged throughout the 1960s and 1970s. By expanding the Voting Rights Act to include the creation of voting materials in languages other than English, Hispanic Americans and other immigrant populations were afforded the opportunity to participate in the most fundamental American democratic process.
What progress did Native Americans make in obtaining stronger legal, political, and economic rights during the 1960s?
Congress passed the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 which guaranteed Native Americans’ protection under the United States Constitution and gave Native Americans legal authority over their reservation lands.
Native Americans organized under the National Congress of American Indians to help protect their culture and push for political rights.
Native American rights groups like the American Indian Movement staged protests and took actions to bring attention to their poor living conditions and lack of equality in American society.
All of the above.
Question 19 Explanation:
Native Americans made large political and legal strides throughout the 1960s. Much like other minority groups, their efforts pushed for cultural recognition, legal protection, and political representation. While Native American groups continued to face challenges related to disease, poverty, and a lack of access to employment, the actions of the American Indian Movement and the National Congress of American Indians demonstrated an organized effort to evoke positive change.
Which of the following groups advocated for and benefitted from the passage of the Rehabilitation Acts of 1972 and 1973?
Question 20 Explanation:
Disability rights activists won key protections and rights for disabled Americans in the 1970s. Among them, the Rehabilitation Acts provided increased and equal access to things like education, public transportation, public buildings, and employment opportunities.
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