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Which of the following had the greatest impact on influencing Native American culture?
The Northwest Passage
The Middle Passage
Nature and environment
Question 1 Explanation:
Nearly every aspect of Native American life centered on the dependence upon the environment. Native Americans depended upon the world around them for the food and resources necessary to survive. As a result, most Native American customs, traditions, and spiritual beliefs focused on the respect and reverence the cultures had for the earth that helped them thrive.
Which of the following is the most widely accepted theory to explain how Native Americans immigrated to the Western Hemisphere?
Native Americans traveled by boat across the Atlantic Ocean.
Native Americans traveled over a land bridged that once connected Asia and North America.
European explorers brought Native Americans to North America.
Native Americas have always inhabited the Western Hemisphere.
Question 2 Explanation:
Most historians and scientists agree that Native Americans are descendants from prehistoric peoples who crossed a land bridge in the Bering Strait that, during the last Ice Age, connected the lands now referred to as Siberia and Alaska.
Many early Native Americans were considered nomads. This means that they:
Migrated from place to place in search of food and resources
Did not have a spoken language
Created permanent settlements
Did not eat meat
Question 3 Explanation:
Many of the early Native American tribes relied upon hunting and gathering for their food supply. Without a system of agriculture in place, they were forced to follow herds and find edible vegetation to survive.
Which of the following skills would allow a culture to shift from being nomadic to settled?
The ability to make durable weapons
The ability to make fire
Learning the skills necessary to farm
Developing a written language
Question 4 Explanation:
Agriculture is a key component that allows a group of people to reliably produce food in a single area. Agriculture also can lead to a surplus of food which can give people the opportunity to use their time for efforts other than the constant quest for food and sustenance.
Which of the following cultures developed first?
Question 5 Explanation:
The Olmec are credited with being one of the first large civilizations to emerge in Central America. Their developed agriculture and ability to work with stone would have a profound influence on the region’s cultures to follow. The Olmec culture emerged around 1500 BCE, nearly 2,000 years prior to the Maya, the second oldest of the listed cultures.
The _____________ civilization was one of the first major cultural groups in what is now Mexico and Central America. Their interest in astronomy influenced their religion, architecture, and highly accurate calendar. The civilization disappeared prior to the year 1,000 leaving behind little evidence about why they vanished.
Question 6 Explanation:
Though the Mayan culture disappeared, they left behind cultural markers including a written language, architecture, art, and evidence of their scientific discoveries.
Which of the following terms describes the picture-based written language of the Mayan people?
Question 7 Explanation:
Most people associate the term hieroglyphics with the ancient Egyptians; however, the term refers to any type of developed written language that utilizes pictures and images to stand for ideas or linguistic sounds.
Which of the following best describes the government of the Mayans?
Question 8 Explanation:
The Mayan culture was shaped largely by a deep religious faith. The gods were at the center of nearly every part of Mayan existence and had complete control over the events on earth. As a result, the priests, the only people who could communicate with the gods, were placed in charge of the Mayan government.
Why did the Mayans construct pyramids such as those built in the city of Tikal?
To be used as a site for ceremonial burials
To be used during religious ceremonies
To help people navigate through the dense jungles of Central America
All of the above
Question 9 Explanation:
The Mayan pyramids were both practically and culturally important. While they were at the center of much of Mayan political and religious life, they also served as key landmarks to help people find their way to the city centers.
The _____________ were native peoples who settled in western mountains of South America. They worshipped the sun god and created vast temples, crafted golden ornaments, and carried out rituals to display their faith. Their population rose to over eight million people before succumbing to invading European explorers in the 1500s.
Question 10 Explanation:
At their peak, the Inca were one of the most powerful empires in the Western Hemisphere.
What crop made it possible for cultures in Mexico and Central American to transition from being nomadic to being settled?
Question 11 Explanation:
Maize, a near relative of corn, was the first crop grown in large quantities across Central America. It could be grown reliably and in large enough amounts that finding food did not have to be the sole focus of people’s time. This newfound freedom allowed for more complex cultures to develop in the region.
The _____________ is a Native American group that settled in the Arctic regions of North America. To survive, they traditionally relied upon animal products like furs, oils, and fats that they could harvest from Arctic wildlife.
Question 12 Explanation:
The Inuit (sometimes incorrectly referred to as Eskimo) culture has been able to survive in their harsh Arctic environment because of their ability to utilize the scarce resources of the Arctic.
The North American mound-building cultures most likely found inspiration for their mounds and other earthworks from:
The pyramids of the Maya and Aztecs
The Egyptian pyramids
The European explorers
They most likely found their inspiration independently
Question 13 Explanation:
Most historians agree that the mounds created by the North American mound building cultures were similar in design and function to the pyramids created by the cultures in Central and South America. The fact that the mounds were created all across the continent suggest a widespread sharing of ideas and by the earliest Americans.
The _____________ Confederacy was a group made up of five tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands region of North America who came together to create and maintain a complex government.
Question 14 Explanation:
The Iroquois Confederacy included the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. After the Tuscarora joined in 1722, the confederacy became known to the English as the Six Nations. They had a representative government, which may have had some influence upon the development of the US Constitution.
How did the Native Americans of the Great Plains come to acquire and domesticate horses?
Spanish explorers gave them to the Native Americans as a peace offering.
Spanish horses got loose and eventually migrated north into the Great Plains.
Horses had always been in North America, the Spanish simply showed the Native Americans how to tame and ride them.
The Native Americans of the Great Plains acquired and learned about horses from Native Americans on the west coast of the continent.
Question 15 Explanation:
Horses were introduced to the Western Hemisphere when the Spanish brought them in the 15th and 16th centuries. Over time, as these horses became part of the ecosystem, they began to find their way into areas outside of New Spain. The Native Americans of the Great Plains took full advantage of this newly introduced species for transportation, hunting, and warfare.
What made the Navajo and Apache tribes different from other Native American tribes living in the American Southwest?
They remained nomadic hunters and gatherers long after most other groups in the area had become settled.
They relied upon trade with South American cultures for survival.
They blended their culture with the Spanish settlers to form a powerful alliance.
They did not believe in war.
Question 16 Explanation:
In contrast to groups like the Hopi and the Zuni who had settled in communities with agriculture and mud-brick homes, the Navajo and Apache spent much of the 1500s roaming the region hunting game and gathering sustenance from wild vegetation. The Navajo would eventually start settling into more permanent communities, but hunting and gathering would still remain a key part of their existence.
What was the main purpose of the traditional Iroquois longhouse?
To house large groups of families
To accommodate spiritual ceremonies
To serve as burial chambers for the dead
To serve as a military fort
Question 17 Explanation:
The longhouse was designed to sustain large groups of people and protect them from the elements of the Northeast. Typically, the people living in a longhouse would be from the same extended families.
What led Native American tribes such as the Anasazi to create cliff dwellings in the American Southwest?
They did not know how to build other types of structures.
Cliffs provided natural protection and were strong enough to hold up to the environment.
It was easier to farm in a cliff than on the ground.
The higher elevation allowed them to feel closer to the gods.
Question 18 Explanation:
Cliff dwellings were largely created out of convenience. While groups like the Anasazi also build ground-based structures, cliffs offered a strong structural base to work with. They also provided natural protection against wind, snow, and rain without the need for much additional reinforcement.
What was the main construction material of Native Americans of the Southwest?
Question 19 Explanation:
Adobe is a mud brick made combining earth, water, and straw and allowing it to harden in the sun. For the peoples of the Southwest, these materials were readily available. The resulting bricks were very strong and effective at creating stable structures.
Which of the following proved to be the biggest threat to Native American cultures and their ability to survive?
Incessant tribal warfare
The second Ice Age
A lack of natural resources
The arrival of European explorers and traders
Question 20 Explanation:
The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere brought forced relocation, warfare, disease, and slavery to the Native American peoples. Over the course of the following centuries, Native American populations would continue to decline at alarming rates, in large part due to the interference of the European cultures.
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