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Why did President James Madison ask Congress for a declaration of war against the British in 1812?
He wanted to expand American interests on the European continent.
He was carrying out policies put in place during the Presidency of Thomas Jefferson.
He wanted to capture Canadian territory and fight back against naval harassment from the British Empire.
He was trying to distract the American public from the scandals of his administration.
Question 1 Explanation:
The ongoing attacks on American shipping were a major cause of the war. Madison and others also thought that with Britain engaged in the Napoleonic Wars, America could easily capture Canada. Adding to the pressure for war was a powerful group of Congressmen known as the War Hawks.
What position did Native American tribes take in the War of 1812?
Most Native American tribes supported the American war effort.
Most Native American tribes remained neutral, viewing the conflict as a European issue.
Most Native American tribes supported the British Empire during the conflict.
Native American tribes found themselves supporting both American and British interests at different points during the conflict, all in hopes of reclaiming previously held territories.
Question 2 Explanation:
Native Americans were utilized by the British to help defend the British territorial holdings in Canada. The tribes had been regularly harassed and disrespected by the young American nation, so supporting the British efforts in North America gave them their best chance to unify and fight back.
What was the result of the War of 1812?
A decisive victory for the United States
A decisive victory for the British Empire
A Pyrrhic victory for the United States
Question 3 Explanation:
Both sides grew weary of the war, and peace negotiations began in August 1814. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24th. Late victories by US forces were viewed by the American public as having restored national honor, and despite the stalemate, Madison proclaimed that the war was an American victory. A period of national unity followed, known as the Era of Good Feelings.
What region of the United States saw the largest economic growth as a result of the Industrial Revolution?
The Mid-Atlantic states
The western frontier
The Southern states
Question 4 Explanation:
New England (Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island) saw a huge increase in the number of factories and manufacturing centers during the early 1800s. The abundance of key raw materials like iron and coal helped fuel the industrial boom. Furthermore, access to navigable waterways made trade and transportation of manufactured goods convenient.
Which of the following best describes the economic system of the United States:
Question 5 Explanation:
The United States from its earliest days relied upon a capitalistic economy where the free market and free enterprise were allowed to flourish. While the United States economy is subject to some government regulation, for the most part, producers and consumers have the ability to produce products, compete in the market, and make purchasing decisions as they see fit.
What was the key benefit of Eli Whitney’s cotton gin?
The machine turned cotton into thread faster than traditional mills could at the time.
The machine was lighter and more portable than other similar machines.
The machine was able to produce alcohol from cotton faster than traditional methods.
The machine was fifty times more efficient at cleaning cotton than a single laborer working by hand.
Question 6 Explanation:
The cotton engine (‘gin’ for short) was a steam-powered machine that was able to remove seeds from the raw material harvested from the cotton plant. This was a tedious process to complete by hand, but Whitney’s invention completed the task faster and more effectively than could be done by hand. The invention would lead to a boom in productivity for Southern cotton plantations.
Where did the majority of the ideas for the technological advancements in the Industrial Revolution come from?
Question 7 Explanation:
Many of the key machines that made American mills and factories run were based off of stolen ideas and technologies brought by British workers who secretly emigrated to the United States.
What effect did the invention of interchangeable parts have on the American economy?
This invention caused the price of goods to skyrocket due to increased production costs.
The prices of goods fell dramatically due to the fact that the machines producing the goods could be built and repaired more inexpensively.
America saw a boom in the export of mechanical parts to places like England, France, and New Spain.
This invention made it harder for people to violate patents.
Question 8 Explanation:
Interchangeable parts meant that industrial equipment was less expensive to build, purchase, and repair. The falling cost of industrial machinery opened up new opportunities for industrial growth and lowered prices for consumers.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect settlement patterns in the United States?
More people sought to escape the noise and smoky air of the cities and moved to small farming communities on the frontier.
Most people migrated south to take advantage of the plantation boom brought about by the cotton gin.
People flocked to cities for the unique economic and cultural opportunities they provided.
People moved away from major waterways to avoid the noise and danger caused by flooding and industrial accidents.
Question 9 Explanation:
While cities had their own problems (noise, disease, fire, and crowding to name a few), the Industrial Revolution and its economic boom enticed thousands of Americans to relocate to urban centers. Simply put, there were more job opportunities available in the cities than in the small farming communities in the South and the American frontier. Increased access to luxuries like boutique shops, libraries, and other cultural centers also helped lure Americans to towns and cities.
Which American inventor built the first commercially successful steamboat in 1807?
Question 10 Explanation:
Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston worked together to develop the Clermont, a steamboat the carried passengers from New York City to Albany. This was the beginning of the steamboat era in the US, and by 1830 there were over 200 steamboats on American rivers. Prior to the steamboat, water travel was largely a one-way endeavor. The steamboat allowed travel and commerce both upstream and down, and encouraged trade by lowering costs and saving time.
Why was Congress was so eager to approve the construction of the National Road in 1806?
The road would provide a way to bring produce and supplies to and from frontier farms, strengthening the American economy.
The road would be a crucial way to move land troops and military supplies within America’s borders.
The road would stimulate westward expansion.
Al of the above.
Question 11 Explanation:
Although the National Road was a massive undertaking, Congress felt that the benefits of such a route would be beneficial enough to invest the resources and nearly 12 years it would take to build and open the road for use. In the decades that followed, America would continue to invest in infrastructure projects to help bolster trade, defense, and settlement.
Why was the Erie Canal built?
To connect New York City to the Great Lakes
To connect Lake Erie and Lake Ontario
To connect the Hudson and Potomac Rivers
To connect the Great Lakes to Washington, D.C.
Question 12 Explanation:
The Erie Canal took two years to dig and spanned an impressive 363 miles across central New York State. The waterway connected the trade centers of New York City to new markets connected to the Great Lakes region and beyond. Combined with other canal projects and the National Road, the early decades of the nineteenth century saw a boom in migrations to the American West.
Why was the decade following the War of 1812 called “The Era of Good Feelings”?
American high society had embraced a high standard of morality, which influenced the daily lives of most Americans.
There was a desire for unity among Americans and an end to the bitter partisan disputes between political parties.
The American government signed a record number of peace treaties and trade deals with foreign powers.
New domestic trade routes led to the widespread consumption of tobacco and alcohol by the American public.
Question 13 Explanation:
The Federalist Party had all but disappeared by the time James Monroe was elected president in 1816. The Republicans controlled the federal government and had the popular support of the American public. The lack of large-scale political conflict led to the Monroe presidency’s moniker, “The Era of Good Feelings.”
What was the major political disagreement surrounding Missouri’s entrance into the Union?
Missouri did not have a large enough population to be admitted to the United States, but some members of Congress insisted on it anyway.
Most members of Congress were fine with Missouri entering the Union, however, many wanted to deny any funding to be spent on internal improvements in the new state for at least five years.
Missouri’s borders were unclear and would potentially encroach on the neighboring states of Kentucky and Tennessee.
If Missouri entered into the Union as a state where slavery was legal, the balance of slave-states to free-states would be broken.
Question 14 Explanation:
The national balance of free-states to slave-states was seen as crucial to southerners who feared the federal government, if given the opportunity, would vote to ban slavery nationwide. Banning slavery would, in essence, strip the southern plantations of their labor force and cripple the economies of the southern states.
What was the result of the Missouri Compromise?
The Massachusetts-controlled territory of Maine was brought into the Union as a free state.
Missouri was allowed to enter the Union as a slave state.
Slavery was banned in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36°30′ parallel (excluding Missouri).
All of the above.
Question 15 Explanation:
The Missouri Compromise was a truce in the growing debate over slavery debate in America. By adding one slave state and one free state the political equilibrium in the US Senate was preserved.
Which of the following was true about factory conditions in the early decades of the nineteenth century?
Children as young as seven years old were sometimes employed in factories.
Workers usually worked shifts lasting over ten hours a day.
Conditions were typically dark, loud, and unsafe.
All of the above.
Question 16 Explanation:
While conditions could vary from factory to factory, conditions for workers in the early 1800s were typically awful by today’s standards.
How did conditions in the Lowell mills differ from the typical European-style factories of the day?
The girls in the Lowell mills, while not technically slaves, were forced to work against their will.
The girls working in the Lowell mills were given food, shelter, and education as a part of their wage.
The Lowell mills were staffed exclusively by children under the age of 12.
The Lowell mills only operated for eight hours a day.
Question 17 Explanation:
The "Mill Girls" were typically between the ages of 15 and 30. Wages were low and the work day was long, but these jobs opened up new opportunities for women, and many were able to attain economic independence for the first time in their lives.
What was the purpose of the disarmaments established in the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817 and the Convention of 1818?
To lure the British Empire into a false sense of security, with a future attack in mind
To improve relations between the United States and Spain
To improve relations between the United States and the British Empire
None of the above
Question 18 Explanation:
The disarmaments were part of President Monroe’s plan to end the hostilities and poor relations between America and Great Britain. Following the War of 1812, both sides stood to benefit from scaling down military costs and international tensions.
The Monroe Doctrine declared that:
The United States would stand against any European nations looking to further colonize the Western Hemisphere.
The United States would aggressively eliminate any existing European colonies in the West Hemisphere.
The United States would help establish European colonies in South America, as a way of generating demand for American exports.
The United States would join the Allied forces of England and France, to fight against Russian invasions across Europe.
Question 19 Explanation:
Following conflicts with Britain and Spain, America was not eager to have to continue fending off European colonial neighbors. The Monroe Doctrine drew a metaphorical line in the sand to discourage European nations from creating new colonies in North and South America. Monroe’s 1823 statement would remain the foundation for American foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere for nearly two centuries.
Which of the following best describes the state of Spanish colonies in the Western Hemisphere by 1830?
The majority of Spanish colonial holdings from the end of the century had become independent countries or annexed by the United States.
The Spanish colonial empire continued to grow into Central and South America.
The Spanish colonies were in largely the same state as they had been for the previous fifty years.
None of the above.
Question 20 Explanation:
By 1830, Mexico, Columbia, Panama, Venezuela, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and Ecuador had all been liberated from Spanish control. The Florida territory had also come under US control.
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