Post-War Era Quiz

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Question 1
What was a common goal of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan?

A
To prevent Soviet expansion and the spread of communism
B
To rebuild relations with Japan after World War II
C
To provide financial support for World War II veterans
D
To suppress future aggressions from the former Axis powers
Question 1 Explanation: 
These were both containment strategies which focused on preventing Soviet communism from spreading throughout Western Europe and the rest of the world.

The Truman Doctrine was the name given to President Truman's policy of providing political, military and economic assistance to nations threatened by threatened by communism.

The Marshall Plan was a program in which the US gave over $13 billion to help rebuild Western European economies after World War II. The purpose of this foreign aid was not only to help these countries, but also to reduce the influence of the communist parties within them
Question 2
Why was the growing conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States known as the “Cold War”?

A
The majority of the conflict’s combat happened in the arctic regions of Siberia.
B
The conflict began during the winter — a rarity for a military conflict.
C
While there were arms buildups and acts of intimidation, there was no actual combat between the two nations.
D
The conflict’s military operations were carried out with extreme cruelty and lack of consideration for human life.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The Cold War would continue for 45 years until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Over that time period, both nations engaged in a massive arms race, stockpiling large numbers of nuclear weapons and tools of war. While there were numerous threats, close calls, and small “proxy wars,” there would be no formal declaration of war or full-scale military clashes between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Question 3
Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established?

A
To negotiate trade agreements with the Soviet Union
B
To create a defensive pact to protect Western Europe and North America from Soviet attacks
C
To lay the groundwork for ending the Cold War diplomatically
D
To help European nations successfully transition to communism
Question 3 Explanation: 
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was put in place in April of 1949 as a defensive measure to protect the pact members from Soviet attack. An attack on one of the NATO nations was to be considered an attack on all.
Question 4
What was the relationship between the Soviet Union and The People’s Republic of China during the Cold War?

A
The People’s Republic of China became a communist state in 1949, and quickly aligned themselves with the Soviet Union.
B
The People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union had little interaction, positive or negative, throughout the Cold War.
C
The People’s Republic of China saw the Soviet Union as a target for invasion throughout the Cold War.
D
The People’s Republic of China became a key ally for NATO members during the Cold War.
Question 4 Explanation: 
Mao Zedong was able to win a hard-fought civil war in China, and made the nation a communist state. The People’s Republic of China found a quick ally in their neighboring communist state, the Soviet Union. The alliance was concerning to the NATO alliance which was already worried about the world-wide spread of communism.
Question 5
What was Congress’s response to President Truman’s “Fair Deal” package of progressive reforms that he proposed in 1949?

A
A large majority embraced the proposals as crucial to helping Americans adjust to post-war life.
B
They narrowly passed his proposals, voting along party lines.
C
A coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats blocked most of his proposals.
D
Truman was able to implement most of his proposals without the approval of Congress.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The Fair Deal was a series of proposals that President Truman presented to Congress in January of 1949. It was an ambitious domestic reform program that was designed to expand New Deal liberalism. The conservative coalition in Congress blocked it since they were opposed to the growth of the federal bureaucracy and since it would increase the deficit. They also opposed giving labor unions more power and expanding welfare programs.
Question 6
The National Security Act of 1947 established:

A
The National Security Council
B
The Central Intelligence Agency
C
The Joint Chiefs of Staff
D
All of the above
Question 6 Explanation: 
The National Security Act of 1947 restructured the US military and intelligence agencies as part of the Truman administration's Cold War strategy.

It merged the Department of the Army and the Department of the Navy and it created the Department of the Air Force.

It created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the nation's first peacetime non-military intelligence agency.

It established the National Security Council (NSC) as a part of the executive branch that coordinates national security efforts between the military and the CIA.

It established the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), a group of military leaders who provide military advice to the President, the Secretary of Defense, and the National Security Council.
Question 7
How did the G.I. Bill affect American military veterans returning from war?

A
It required veterans to commit to a period of additional service before receiving their service bonuses
B
It enabled millions of returning veterans to attend college, buy homes, and find jobs
C
It allowed returning veterans to end their enlistments in exchange for a commitment to a public service job for at least five years
D
It enabled elite military veterans to serve as intelligence officers in the Cold War
Question 7 Explanation: 
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 is more commonly known as the G.I. Bill. It provided benefits to returning veterans, including financial incentives to attend college, low-cost mortgages, and low-interest business loans. The Bill played an important role in reintegrating soldiers into civilian life and in helping the American economy achieve long-term economic growth.
Question 8
How did President Truman respond to the invasion of South Korea by North Korea in 1950?

A
He immediately deployed American ground forces to help defend South Korea.
B
He waited to see if South Korean military forces could defend themselves before sending any military support.
C
He deployed American troops as part of a NATO coalition.
D
He called for a naval blockade and urged the United Nations to intervene.
Question 8 Explanation: 
Two days after the invasion the UN authorized the deployment of troops to defend South Korea. The UN troops were led by U.S. General Douglas MacArthur. Twenty-one countries contributed to the UN force, with the US providing 88% of the troops.
Question 9
What was the end result of the Korean War?

A
North Korea and its communist allies achieved total victory and total control over South Korea.
B
South Korea and its UN allies were able to successfully invade and claim North Korea.
C
A cease-fire agreement was signed and a demilitarized zone was established between North and South Korea.
D
China and the Soviet Union used the war as an opportunity to take over the entire Korean Peninsula.
Question 9 Explanation: 
Despite catastrophic losses of life on all sides, the Korean War resulted in very little change in control over the Korean Peninsula. North Korea and South Korea both retreated to their own territories and a strip of land was carved out at the border surrounding the 38th parallel where no military action would be permitted.
Question 10
What was the central fear that led to the Red Scare in the late 1940s and early 1950s?

A
The fear of a full-scale military conflict with China.
B
The fear that the Republicans in Congress were going to impeach President Truman
C
The fear of a stock market crash followed by another depression.
D
The fear that communists were infiltrating all areas of American society
Question 10 Explanation: 
The Red Scare led to a nation-wide hunt for suspected communists. The House Un-American Activities Committee was formed to stage investigations and public hearings into suspected communists. Senator Joseph McCarthy raised the stakes further the with televised hearings in which he accused various government officials and military leaders of having communist ties.
Question 11
What was the result of the Election of 1952?

A
Republicans easily regained control over the Presidency and Congress, led by Presidential nominee and war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower
B
Adlai Stevenson narrowly won the Presidency, but Republicans kept control of Congress
C
Adlai Stevenson and the Democrats won control over the executive and legislative branches
D
Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower won the Presidency, but Democrats gained control over Congress
Question 11 Explanation: 
Following two terms, Truman did not garner enough support to make it through the primary. Adlai Stevenson was the Democratic nominee, and he was defeated in a landslide by Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was well known from his success in World War II. Eisenhower's vice-presidential running mate was Richard Nixon, who was able to use his tough stance against communism to help the ticket.
Question 12
Which of the following best describes President Eisenhower’s approach to domestic policy?

A
Eisenhower was very progressive; throughout him term he sought to create many new social welfare programs.
B
Eisenhower was very conservative; he cut hundreds of government jobs and eliminated social welfare programs.
C
Eisenhower was a moderate; he worked to prevent excessive government spending while continuing most New Deal programs.
D
Eisenhower was erratic in his domestic policies and was largely unpopular.
Question 12 Explanation: 
President Eisenhower was a moderate who described himself with terms like "dynamic conservative" and "progressive conservative." He continued the New Deal programs that were still in existence and expanded Social Security. He also signed a bill authorizing the Interstate Highway System. The end result was a successful moderate approach that won favor with a majority of Americans, regardless of their political affiliations.
Question 13
What was President Eisenhower’s approach to Cold War military spending?

A
Although he aimed to slash military spending, Eisenhower was lured into an expensive arms race with the Soviet Union.
B
Eisenhower focused on developing a larger arsenal of conventional weapons and scaled back production of nuclear weapons.
C
Eisenhower refused to invest in any military spending that was not a nuclear weapon.
D
None of the above.
Question 13 Explanation: 
The Cold War led to a dramatic increase in American defense spending. New nuclear weapons and missiles were developed to deliver nuclear payloads from farther distances. Ironically, Eisenhower had initially hoped nuclear technology would allow him to cut military spending.
Question 14
Which of the following factors bolstered American interest and investment in space exploration?

A
The successful Soviet deployment of Sputnik, the first man-made satellite.
B
President Eisenhower’s personal fascination with the cosmos.
C
Leading scientists pressured the Eisenhower administration to use some of the $300 million budget surplus to fund space research.
D
The United Nations issued a challenge to the world community to encourage investment in space-based research.
Question 14 Explanation: 
Americans were fearful that the Soviets were becoming more technologically advanced than the United States (and possibly seeking to weaponize space). Sputnik would mark the beginning of a decades-long space race between the Cold War rivals.
Question 15
Which of these statements best describes Eisenhower’s domino theory?

A
Success in the Cold War would be determined by both good luck and strategy.
B
If either China or the Soviet Union collapsed, the other would collapse shortly thereafter.
C
If one nation in a region came under communist control, neighboring nations would follow suit one-by-one.
D
If Eisenhower could gain military support from one European nation, the others would follow suit one-by-one.
Question 15 Explanation: 
One of the major goals of the Cold War was to prevent the further spread of Communism throughout the world. There were numerous cases throughout the 1950s where it appeared the containment policy was in jeopardy. Eisenhower was certain that if the communists were able to take control over one Asian nation, others would surely follow. The United States helped lead efforts to create the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization in an effort to help keep such a series of events from starting.
Question 16
What impact did the capture of American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers have on relations between the United States and the Soviet Union?

A
It proved the ruthlessness of new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev towards his American foes.
B
It reversed a period of improving relations between the United States and the Soviet Union.
C
It showed the Soviets that the United States was willing to sacrifice military personnel to avoid war.
D
The peaceful resolution following the spy plane incident set the tone for a new era of decreased tensions between the two superpowers.
Question 16 Explanation: 
The U-2 incident could not have come at a worse time. Eisenhower and new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had been working towards a policy of peaceful coexistence between their two nations when the American spy plane was shot down and its pilot was captured by the Soviets. The discovery of the American aerial spying efforts quickly restored hostilities.
Question 17
How did the American economy change in the decades following World War II?

A
The economy steadily declined as the debts from the war effort overwhelmed the government
B
Productivity, technology, and standards of living all increased substantially in the post-war era
C
Despite rapid improvements in technology and infrastructure, the post-war economy remained fairly stagnant
D
The economy continued to suffer under high rates of inflation without much improvement in wages for most Americans
Question 17 Explanation: 
The post-war era marked one of the largest increases ever in American prosperity. Workers were earning higher wages, technological developments lowered production costs, and programs like the G.I. Bill helped Americans gain access to education, job opportunities, and purchasing power at record rates.
Question 18
Which of the following statements characterizes the suburban boom which occurred in the 1950s?

A
Minorities had limited access to suburban communities due to racist real estate practices
B
The rise in automobile ownership allowed more families to move to the suburbs while commuting to city jobs
C
Massive housing developments sprung up in the areas surrounding major cities
D
All of the above
Question 18 Explanation: 
The growth of the American suburbs was directly linked to the increase in transportation options and home-buying power in the post-war era. However, many groups were kept out of the suburbs due to a combination of racist housing policies and poverty.
Question 19
How did the migration of working-class and middle-class families to the suburbs affect those who remained in the inner cities.

A
Those who were unable to move to the suburbs experienced a worsening state of joblessness and poverty in the inner cities
B
City-dwellers had more job opportunities, a result of the vast number of people who had moved out
C
Inner cities flourished due to the rise of new technologies and related job opportunities
D
Inner cities did not change very much despite the growth of the suburbs
Question 19 Explanation: 
The “white flight” of white Americans to the suburbs led to many jobs leaving the cities as well. Minority groups seeking employment continued to move to urban centers in large numbers, but found little more than a steadily shrinking job market and rising levels of poverty.
Question 20
What effect did television have on American culture?

A
New shows portraying middle-class families served as examples for Americans’ hopes and dreams for their own lives.
B
The rise of television commercials spurred on an already growing consumer culture.
C
Television allowed Americans to access important news and cultural events from within their own homes and, in turn, have a shared experience regardless of their location.
D
All of the above.
Question 20 Explanation: 
Television wholly changed American culture. Besides being a powerful way to distribute and receive information, it created cultural common ground as families across the country tuned in to watch broadcasts.
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