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What was the primary purpose of the Reconstruction period following the Civil War?
To reinstate slavery in parts of the United States
To fix damage done to buildings during the war
To rebuild the southern economy and society
To rebuild the depleted military
Question 1 Explanation:
Losing the Civil War meant that the South would have to conform to the laws of the United States. Reconstruction aimed to bring the southern states back into the Union, reestablish southern loyalty to the United States’ Constitution, integrate freed slaves into society, and repair the southern economy that no longer had the advantage of slave labor.
Which of the following best summarizes President Lincoln’s attitude toward the policies and process of Reconstruction?
He believed the South should not be welcomed back into the Union
He believed the Southern states should have to recognize equal rights for African Americans before being welcomed back into the Union
He insisted that a majority of Southern citizens take an oath of loyalty before the South could be welcomed back into the Union
He believed that there would be no benefit to punishing southern states.
Question 2 Explanation:
Lincoln realized that, with the war over, anything that prolonged the divide between North and South would be harmful to the nation overall. The war devastated the Southern economy and population, leaving a lot of hard feelings towards the victorious North. More punitive actions against the South, Lincoln felt, would only make it harder to heal the divided nation. Lincoln’s view, while prudent, was not extremely popular.
How did the Wade–Davis Bill deal with the issues of Reconstruction?
It required former Confederate states to include a ban on slavery in their state constitutions.
It required a majority of voters in each Confederate state to swear their allegiance to the US before rejoining the Union
It prohibited Confederate officials and military leaders from voting or holding office
All of the above
Question 3 Explanation:
The Wade–Davis Bill was proposed by the Radical Republicans who sought to punish the South for their rebellion and to reinforce the expectation of loyalty and obedience to the federal government. Lincoln vetoed this bill, setting the stage for a compromise on the issue of Reconstruction.
What was the purpose of the Freedmen’s Bureau?
To help African Americans, particularly those who had been enslaved, adjust to life with increased rights and responsibilities
To free slaves from Southern plantations
To ensure that white voters supported anti-slavery laws and policies
To assist Confederate prisoners in returning home safely.
Question 4 Explanation:
The Freedman’s Bureau played a key role in helping African Americans gain access to basic needs, education, property, and health care during Reconstruction.
Who assassinated Abraham Lincoln?
Lee Harvey Oswald
John Wilkes Booth
James Earl Jones
James Earl Ray
Question 5 Explanation:
Booth assassinated President Lincoln on April 14, 1865 during the performance of a play in Washington, D.C.’s Ford’s Theater. Booth, a stage actor, had ties to the Confederate cause.
President Johnson’s view of African Americans was:
Similar to Abraham Lincoln’s
That they should be granted equal rights to whites, including voting rights
That they should be granted equal rights to whites, but not voting rights
That they should not be granted equal rights to whites
Question 6 Explanation:
During Reconstruction, Johnson did not believe there was anything to be gained by promoting equal rights for African Americans. Instead, Johnson focused primarily on putting Union-loyal white leaders in place in Southern statehouses.
How did the Thirteenth Amendment change the Constitution?
It gave all men, regardless of race, the ability to vote in the United States.
It abolished slavery in the United States.
It gave women the right to vote in the United States.
It formally brought the Southern states back into the Union.
Question 7 Explanation:
Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment in January 1865, formally outlawing slavery in the United States.
What was the purpose of the “Black Codes” which were enacted in Southern states in 1865 and 1866?
To provide African Americans access to government services
To desegregate Southern society and institutions
To restrict the freedom of African Americans and ensure their availability as a cheap labor force
To repeal the slave codes that were in place before the war
Question 8 Explanation:
The Black Codes included tactics like fines, arrests, and kidnapping to force African Americans back into bondage working on Southern farms without, technically, enslaving them.
Which of the following is true of the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
It declared that all people born in the United States are entitled to be citizens without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery.
It prohibited state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of slavery.
It was signed into law by President Andrew Johnson.
All of the above.
Question 9 Explanation:
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 defined citizenship and affirmed that all citizens are equally protected by the law. President Johnson vetoed the Act, but Congress overrode his veto to pass it.
The Fourteenth Amendment states that:
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States...
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States...
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
Question 10 Explanation:
By clarifying and expanding the definition of what constituted a United States citizen, the Fourteenth Amendment brought emancipated African Americans into American society and allowed them to take advantage of much-needed legal protections.
What terms did the Reconstruction Act of 1867 put in place for the Southern states who had not yet ratified the Fourteenth Amendment?
The states could enter the Union if they promised they would ratify the Fourteenth Amendment within five years.
The states were put under the control of military commanders until they ratified the Fourteenth Amendment and rebuilt their state governments.
The states were allowed to ignore the Fourteenth Amendment.
African American males would not have the right to vote until the Fourteenth Amendment was passed.
Question 11 Explanation:
Ten Southern states were placed under the control of military leaders until such time as they passed the Fourteenth Amendment and put state constitutions in place that aligned with the United States’ Constitution. Over the next two years, partially due to the help of newly enfranchised African American male voters, all ten states complied with the Reconstruction Act’s mandates.
What was President Johnson’s role in the period of Radical Reconstruction that took place in 1867 and 1868?
Johnson, a Democrat, had little control over Reconstruction policy due to the Republican control of Congress.
Johnson wrote much of the Reconstruction legislation himself.
Johnson pushed for laws limiting the Executive Branch’s power to help ensure the policies included in the Radical Reconstruction plan would endure after he left office.
Johnson deliberately removed himself from the decisions involving Reconstruction.
Question 12 Explanation:
Throughout his term, Johnson would try to use his Executive Branch appointments and role as Commander in Chief to try to resist Radical Reconstruction efforts being forwarded by the Republican-controlled Congress. At every step, Congress intervened and put laws in place that circumvented and, in some cases, limited the President’s authority. The House of Representatives even voted to impeach Johnson over an appointment he made that violated the newly instated Tenure of Office Act.
Who did the Fifteenth Amendment formally grant the right to vote in 1870?
all male citizens
all white, male citizens
all citizens excluding former slaves
Question 13 Explanation:
The Fifteenth Amendment was designed to allow all male citizens the right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” This was a bold and progressive change to America’s Constitution, however feelings of racism persisted throughout the wounded nation. Equality at the ballot box would be a work in progress for decades to come.
Who were the group of people known as “carpetbaggers” who emerged in the Reconstruction-era South?
Northern Democrats who moved into former Confederate-controlled states with the intention of upsetting Radical Reconstruction plans.
Tradesmen hoping to take advantage of the vast number of construction contracts being offered to rebuild the war-torn South.
Northern Republicans who moved down South, often with intentions of helping rebuild Southern society.
Southern Democrats who packed their bags and fled to the West and North to escape the progressive aims of Radical Reconstruction.
Question 14 Explanation:
The “carpetbaggers,” so named because of how they travelled light with inexpensive luggage made of fabric, were largely a benign group of Northern Republicans seeking a fresh start in the South (despite Southern Democrats’ fears to the contrary). They came from a wide variety of backgrounds ranging from highly-educated professionals to former Civil War soldiers. Both African Americans and whites were part of the “carpetbagger” migration.
Which of the following describes the African American experience in the Reconstruction-Era South?
African Americans began to be elected to federal, state, and local governmental posts.
Despite the passage of progressive new laws, racist attitudes prevented open access to employment, education, voting, and protection against violence.
Sharecropping practices kept many African Americans in working conditions that weren’t a significant improvement over slavery.
all of the above
Question 15 Explanation:
While there were some improvements in African American life in the post-war South, many whites were reluctant to abandon their racist attitudes and biased practices. The next century would see African Americans continuing to fight for the legal rights they had been granted and were rightfully entitled to.
What was the premise behind the sharecropping model of agriculture?
Communities would combine their farms’ yields to ensure everyone had enough food.
Workers would be given a modest home, supplies, and a small portion of land to farm for personal use in exchange for also farming the landowner’s land.
Farmers would collude to drive up prices of certain crops.
The government would pay farmers to grow specific crops that were particularly in demand.
Question 16 Explanation:
The sharecropping model left many tenant farmers in such dire straits that it was nearly impossible to break free from their economic shackles. Sharecroppers typically did not have enough good farmland or time to tend to it. As a result, these farmers remained in a form of economic bondage, tied to the landowner with no foreseeable way of making enough personal profit to become independent.
How did the Amnesty Act of 1872 change Southern politics?
Republicans regained a substantial number of voters who had previously been denied voting rights due to unproven war crimes.
Democrats who were previously unable to vote due to their Confederate ties were now able to vote and run for office.
A large number of immigrants and African Americans were given voting rights.
The Democratic Party was disbanded and replaced with a new, more liberal version of the Republican Party.
Question 17 Explanation:
The Amnesty Act of 1872 completely flipped the script on Southern politics and halted the progress being made by Reconstruction efforts. By allowing the former Confederates to reenter the political arena, Republicans faced an uphill battle against the surge in Democratic support and voter-suppression tactics aimed at Republicans and African Americans.
How did the Compromise of 1877 effectively end Reconstruction?
The federal government pledged larger amounts of financial assistance to the Southern states.
Federal troops were removed from the Southern states and the Democratic majority was entrusted to protect and enforce the rights of African Americans.
A large number of Republican lawmakers regained seats in Southern state governments, but chose to abandon Reconstruction reforms.
none of the above
Question 18 Explanation:
The Compromise of 1877 gave the South and its Democratic majority the reigns to carry out social and legal reforms as they saw fit without federal interference or oversight. As a result, the Democrats began using their newfound majority to roll back many of the social programs put in place during Reconstruction that were designed to aid the poor and African Americans.
How did many Southern states work around the voting rights guaranteed in the Fifteenth Amendment?
Poll taxes prevented poor citizens from being able to vote.
Grandfather clauses gave citizens the right to vote if their grandfathers had been able to vote in elections prior to Reconstruction.
Literacy tests were put into place requiring citizens to read difficult passages from legal documents in order to be able to vote.
all of the above
What did the verdict of Plessy v. Ferguson mean for segregation laws in America?
Segregation was ruled unconstitutional and all “Jim Crow” laws had to be immediately repealed.
Segregation laws were legal in former Confederate states only.
Segregation was legal, as long as the notion of “separate but equal” was being followed.
Segregation laws would “sunset” and have to be repealed within the next 20 years.
Question 20 Explanation:
The Plessy v. Ferguson verdict would maintain the post-Reconstruction trend that saw the federal laws protecting the rights of African Americans being disregarded and circumvented. The “separate but equal” promise would not be enforced in nearly any aspect of society. As a result, African Americans faced subpar access to public businesses, services, and programs.
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