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Which of the following is an example of how slavery was opposed and combated in the United States in the years leading up to the Civil War (1800–1860)?
Abolitionist groups were formed throughout the Northern states.
Anti-slavery newspapers were established.
The Underground Railroad helped thousands of slaves escape to freedom in the Northern states and Canada.
All of the above.
Question 1 Explanation:
The fight against slavery took many forms: there were efforts on the ground to help get slaves to personal freedom and abolitionists worked tirelessly to help raise awareness of slavery’s horrors.
Which statement best describes the role of slavery in the Southern economy?
The Southern states used slave labor in the maintenance of their homes so that the white owners had more time for leisure.
The Southern economy was based on manufacturing and they needed slave labor to work in the factories.
The Southern economy was based on agriculture and they used slave labor to work the farms, producing food and other raw materials for the national market.
Slavery was not important in the Southern states after the creation of the cotton gin.
Question 2 Explanation:
Farming in the 1800s was primarily a “by hand” enterprise, reliant upon human labor. While the majority of Southern farms did not use slave labor, slaves were essential parts of the large southern plantations that spanned hundreds of acres.
The Underground Railroad was:
A way to transport goods between states more efficiently
America’s first subway system
Invented by Harriet Tubman
A network created by abolitionists to help slaves escape to the North, where slavery was outlawed
Question 3 Explanation:
Though the exact numbers are unknown, it is estimated that the Underground Railroad successfully helped over 100,000 slaves escape slavery in the South over a 40-year period.
Which of the following statements was true of Southern farmers in the early 1800s?
The majority of Southern farmers relied upon slaves to run their farms.
The majority of Southern farmers did not own any slaves.
The majority of Southern farmers did not own the land they farmed.
The majority of Southern farmers opposed slavery.
Question 4 Explanation:
Although slavery was a major part of the Southern economy, an overwhelming majority of farmers did not own any slaves at all. While large plantations relied upon slave labor to maximize their agricultural output, the smaller farms that made up a large portion of the South were worked mainly by a combination of tenant farmers and paid laborers.
Which of the following was true of slave marriages in the South?
Slave marriages held full, legal standing.
Slave marriages could prevent partners from being separated by sale.
Slave marriages were only allowed between consenting people.
None of the above.
Question 5 Explanation:
Slave marriages were purely symbolic bonds that were not recognized in the eyes of the law. While many slaves chose to marry, owner-arranged marriages were not uncommon. In the end, the slave owner even had the right to break up married couples by selling a partner to another owner.
Congress’s ban on the international African slave trade in 1808 meant that:
Slavery began to slowly fade away as the current population of slaves died off
The era of slavery was officially over in America
The slave population was maintained with the children of slaves
With the exception of slave owners, almost all Americans wanted slavery to be abolished
Question 6 Explanation:
Despite the fact that new African slaves could not be imported into the United States from 1808 onward, slavery remained a powerful economic force in the American South for decades. Slaveholders were able to maintain their slave labor force by enslaving the children born to their slaves. As a result, the majority of the slave population in the 1860s was slaves who had been born in the United States as opposed to Africa.
What was the purpose of the “slave codes” that were passed in Southern states in the mid-1800s?
To prevent slave rebellion
To give slaves access to a basic education
To provide a secret means of communication for the slave owners
To create a way to classify slaves for the United States census
Question 7 Explanation:
The “slave codes” were a series of laws created to help reduce the risk of a slave uprisings in the South. Slaves were barred from learning to read or write, prevented from leaving the property of their owners without legal documentation, and prohibited from assembling in large groups.
What was the result of Nat Turner’s Rebellion in August of 1831?
Nat Turner and his fellow slave rebels escaped to freedom in the North.
Nat Turner and a team of Northern abolitionists stormed the Virginia Statehouse to protest slavery in the South.
Following the violent uprising that left nearly sixty whites dead, Turner and 16 of his fellow slave rebels were caught and executed.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion helped liberate the majority of Virginia plantations.
Question 8 Explanation:
Nat Turner’s Rebellion further enhanced the fears of many Southern whites that slave uprisings were a growing threat. As a result, more “slave codes” were passed through Southern legislatures and the treatment of African-Americans in the South continued to worsen. In the North, Nat Turner’s rebellion helped to strengthen the abolitionists’ case that the institution of slavery needed to end.
What was the purpose of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850?
To legally classify runaway slaves as stolen pieces of property that had to be recovered and returned to their owners
To guarantee escaped slaves their freedom should they make it to a free state
To force slaves who had been convicted of crimes to serve long prison terms
To allow slaves accused of crimes to be tried in Northern courts
Question 9 Explanation:
Southern slave owners were frustrated by the growing number of runaway slaves that were eating into their profits. A runaway was seen as a loss of property, and just as with any other property, the owners expected to have the legal right to recover their losses. The Fugitive Slave Act was a federal law which meant that it applied even to states where slavery had been outlawed. As a result, slave catchers were dispersed into Northern states to try and return fugitive slaves back to their owners.
What was the public reaction to the Fugitive Slave Act in the North?
Most Northerners sought to abide by the Act even though they disapproved of it.
States in the North unanimously repealed the Act within the first month of its passage.
Northern states supported the Act as a fair practice and helped return runaway slaves in large numbers.
Northerners generally resisted the Act by refusing to comply with it; some even organized efforts to help fugitive slaves evade capture.
Question 10 Explanation:
The resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act was viewed by many in the South as a core reason to consider secession from the Union. If Northern states were unwilling to comply with federal law, what was the point for Southern states to remain part of that same federal government?
In the landmark case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, the Supreme Court held that:
Descendants of slaves, whether enslaved or free, could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court.
The federal government had no power to regulate slavery in any federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States.
The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
All of the above.
Question 11 Explanation:
Dred Scott had sued for his freedom on the basis that he had lived legally on free soil and, therefore, could not be returned to a life of slavery. The verdict, written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, set a much larger precedent by equating the prohibition of slavery to the government taking away someone’s legal property. This argument helped bolster the Southern cause for slavery remaining in place and potentially spreading into more American territories.
What was the goal of the American Colonization Society?
To establish new American colonies in South America.
To create new colonies on the American frontier for free blacks.
To help free-born American blacks move to Africa.
To prevent the further colonization of South America.
Question 12 Explanation:
The American Colonization Society was founded in 1816. By 1867 the organization had assisted more than 13,000 blacks in moving to the colony of Liberia, on the west coast of Africa. The ACS included abolitionists who felt that blacks would have a better chance for freedom in Africa, and it also included some slave owners who felt that the repatriation of free blacks would help prevent slave rebellions. Some members were openly racist in arguing that free blacks would not be capable of assimilating in America. Others were worried that blacks would undercut the wages of whites.
What was the mission of William Lloyd Garrison’s newspaper, The Liberator?
To promote the expansion of slavery into frontier territories
To advocate for the emancipation of slaves
To lobby for a balance between free and slave states
To advocate for the secession of Southern states
Question 13 Explanation:
Garrison’s paper became a strong and galvanizing voice in the American abolitionist movement. Its message would help lead to the foundation of antislavery societies across the country throughout the mid-1800s.
What was it that made the antislavery arguments of the Grimké sisters so effective?
Their experiences as part of a southern, slaveholding family gave them a first-hand perspective on the horrors of slavery.
Their ability to write in six different languages ensured that their message could be heard and understood by the international community.
Their ironic arguments in favor of slavery were so profane and dehumanizing that they helped unify people against the pro-slavery cause.
Their anti-slavery case made it all the way to the Supreme Court and garnered national attention.
Question 14 Explanation:
The Grimké sisters had a unique perspective on slavery thanks to their upbringing as white children on a South Carolina plantation. Their 1839 book, American Slavery as It Is, opened the eyes of outsiders and gave a chilling glimpse into the realities of slave life.
What made Frederick Douglass’s antislavery argument so effective?
Douglas was the editor of an antislavery publication; this gave him access to a wide audience when sharing his message.
Douglass was an escaped slave, and he was able to use his self-taught reading and writing skills to convey the realities of slavery from his unique perspective.
Douglass was able to share his arguments with people in Europe and the Caribbean, garnering international support for his cause.
All of the above.
Question 15 Explanation:
Frederick Douglass was able to use his experience as a runaway slave to articulate how awful life under slavery truly was. He used his newspaper, The North Star, as well as his rising international fame to spread the abolitionist cause. As a fugitive slave, Douglass was risking his freedom and his life to communicate his message that all African Americans deserved not only freedom, but total equality.
Why did so many Southerners who didn't own slaves oppose the abolitionist movement of the North?
Southerners were afraid the Southern economy would collapse without the slave labor force it had come to rely upon.
Southerners were fearful that the abolitionists were planning to take up arms and attack Southern states.
Southerners who did not own slaves were in the minority and tended to follow the political leanings of the slave holding majority.
Southerners did not believe the abolitionist movement was large enough to merit concern.
Question 16 Explanation:
The South had built its economic power upon the labor-intensive cash crops of cotton, sugar, and tobacco. As a result, little attention was paid to developing an industrial economy like the Northern states had done. Most Southerners believed that if the slave labor force was set free, the Southern economy would surely crumble.
Which of the following best describes the reaction to the abolitionist movement in the North?
Northerners universally supported the abolitionist cause.
While some were in opposition, most Northerners supported the abolitionist movement.
The majority of Northerners did not support abolition.
Northerners universally opposed the abolitionist movement.
Question 17 Explanation:
Most Northerners were either against or ambivalent to the abolitionist movement. National unity, especially in an era of such rapid expansion, was seen as being especially important. Many Northerners felt that the abolitionist movement had the potential to divide the nation and threaten the Union’s future. As a result, there were numerous instances of both vocal and violent opposition to the abolitionist movement in the North.
What role did music play in African American slave communities?
Music was used as a secret communication system.
Music was crucial in establishing and maintaining a cultural identity for African Americans.
Music was used as a means of expressing spirituality and during religious worship.
All of the above.
Question 18 Explanation:
African American slaves used music in a multitude of ways to help improve their poor living conditions. Music provided a way to openly communicate messages, beliefs, and feelings in ways that were not easily discernible to the white slave masters.
What was the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin?
The book drew widespread attention to the terrors and brutality of slavery.
The book reinforced Southern opinions that slaves were better off than abolitionists claimed.
The book was used as the primary means for helping slaves and escaped slaves to learn to read.
The book helped promote the reinstatement of the international slave trade.
Question 19 Explanation:
Stowe’s famous work sold hundreds of thousands of copies when it was first published in 1852. The novel would prove to be one of the most influential pieces in spreading the abolitionist message to both an American and international audience.
What was John Brown’s approach to promoting abolition?
John Brown toured the South giving speeches trying to rally the population that did not own slaves to join the abolitionist cause.
John Brown ran for the United States Senate in an effort to end slavery by passing new federal laws.
John Brown led a series of violent raids against pro-slavery supporters and sought to arm slaves in a full-scale rebellion.
All of the above.
Question 20 Explanation:
Brown became a martyr of the abolitionist cause following his roles in the “Bleeding Kansas” revolts and the raid on Harper’s Ferry. Brown and his supporters believed in using violence and terror to fight against the institution of slavery and those who supported it.
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