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What was the goal of President Kennedy’s flexible response plan?
to provide America with a way to communicate quickly and effectively with the American people in case of an emergency
to ensure the American military was prepared to engage in guerilla warfare style conflicts
to give local law enforcement officials the right to assess situations and enact a wider range of responses
to expand the number of options available to the State Department when dealing with foreign diplomats
Question 1 Explanation:
Kennedy recognized that in the Cold War’s “proxy wars,” Soviet forces and their allies were increasingly turning to guerilla warfare tactics rather than open combat. The flexible response plan was designed to create new American Special Forces units trained in this ambush-focused style of combat.
Which of the following best describes the results of the Bay of Pigs Invasion?
American forces successfully infiltrated Cuba and assassinated communist leader Fidel Castro.
American forces successfully invaded Cuba but were unable to assassinate communist leader Fidel Castro.
The mission was a failure and the American-trained troops were all either killed or captured.
The American invasion of Cuba was planned, but never actually carried out due to a lack of support from top generals.
Question 2 Explanation:
The Bay of Pigs invasion was one of the biggest military blunders in American history. President Kennedy had hoped to use Cuban exiles to instigate a revolution in Cuba to overthrow its communist leader, Fidel Castro. The combination of bad intelligence and Kennedy’s inexperience in a commanding role led to the ultimate failure of the mission.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Wall?
to prevent open travel and communication between East and West Berlin
to prevent open travel and communication between North and South Berlin
to make it difficult for Soviet forces to enter the city of Berlin
to serve as a monument honoring the fallen soldiers from World War II
Question 3 Explanation:
Built in 1961, the Berlin Wall served as a physical and ideological barrier between communist East Berlin and free West Berlin. On the East German side of the wall, Soviet-era repression prevented citizens from accessing many economic, technological, and political opportunities that were more readily available to those living on the West German side. This stark contrast would remain a key symbol of the Cold War conflict until the border between East and West Germany was reopened in 1989.
How did President Kennedy respond to the Cuban Missile Crisis?
He threatened to retaliate with nuclear weapons if the Soviets used a nuclear weapon anywhere in the Western Hemisphere.
He ordered a naval blockade of all Cuban ports.
He utilized spy planes to monitor the development of Cuban missile sites.
All of the above.
Question 4 Explanation:
Unlike the bungled Bay of Pigs invasion, Kennedy handled the Cuban Missile Crisis with both poise and resolve. Although the Soviet Union tested Kennedy’s naval blockade by continuing to send ships and equipment to Cuba, the ships ultimately turned around and the missile-related equipment on the island was removed. Not only did Kennedy’s response to the crisis prevent a possible thermonuclear war, it set in motion numerous safeguards (like a direct phone line between the Cold War leaders in Moscow and Washington D.C.) that would help prevent similar standoffs in the future.
Which of the following best describes the establishment of communist North Vietnam?
Communist leader Ho Chi Minh led successful revolts against the occupying Japanese near the end of World War II and then the colonizing French a decade later.
Communist leader Ho Chi Minh led a successful revolt against the Chinese colonizing the region.
The Soviet Union invaded Vietnam and took control of the region from the French.
China invaded Vietnam and took control of the region from the French.
Question 5 Explanation:
Ho Chi Minh was able to fend off occupations by both the Japanese and the French to establish Vietnam as a communist state. Both conflicts would be hard-fought and result in significant casualties, but the military experience gained by the Vietnamese would prove invaluable in their upcoming conflicts.
Which of the following best describes the establishment of non-communist South Vietnam?
The 1954 Geneva Accords made all of Vietnam a non-communist country.
In 1954, South Vietnamese leaders successfully overthrew Ho Chi Minh and won independence for South Vietnam.
The 1954 Geneva Accords allowed South Vietnam to exist as a non-communist state until national elections could be held in 1956 to unify North and South Vietnam.
Near the end of World War II, the Allied powers had established crucial bases in South Vietnam. When the war ended, the Allies carved out the territory of South Vietnam and shared control.
Question 6 Explanation:
The divide between North and South Vietnam was originally intended to be temporary. The plan was to allow the Vietnamese to hold elections in 1956 and unify North and South Vietnam; however, the elections never happened. This failure to honor the arrangement put forth in the Geneva Accords would become a root cause of the Vietnam War.
What American foreign policy ultimately led America to be involved in the conflict between North and South Vietnam?
the domino theory
the Monroe Doctrine
the open door policy
Question 7 Explanation:
American involvement in Vietnam was a direct result of the belief dating back to the Eisenhower administration that if another Asian nation fell under communist control, the rest would fall one-by-one.
What was the relationship like between the United States and South Korean leader Ngo Dinh Diem?
Diem was eager to work with the United States to both combat the Vietcong and rebuild South Korean infrastructure to help limit the appeal of communism.
Diem accepted American military aid, however he refused to take the necessary steps to prevent corruption from interfering with the domestic problems facing his people. The United States approved a coup of Diem to remove him from power.
Diem was hostile towards Kennedy and his offers of military assistance to the South Vietnamese. Kennedy ended up sending American troops to support the South Vietnamese people anyway.
Beyond supplying military aid to South Vietnam, President Kennedy successfully helped Diem gain political support from the South Vietnamese people.
Question 8 Explanation:
Ultimately, Diem became one of South Vietnam’s biggest liabilities in the fight against the Vietcong. His unwillingness to tackle important economic, political, and cultural issues in South Vietnam made it increasingly difficult for a successful opposition to take root against the North Vietnamese. Diem was assassinated in a South Vietnamese military coup in November of 1963.
What was President Johnson’s attitude towards involvement in Vietnam when he took office in 1963?
Johnson was not convinced the South Vietnamese could fend off the North Vietnamese and Vietcong with or without American aid; he immediately began withdrawing American troops from Vietnam.
Johnson was doubtful about South Vietnam’s chances against the North Vietnamese and Vietcong, but felt America was already too committed to the fight to withdraw.
Johnson was eager to increase American involvement in Vietnam and was convinced that victory could be achieved quickly.
Johnson showed little interest in the Vietnam conflict and deferred all decisions to Congress and American military leaders.
Question 9 Explanation:
Following the assassination of both South Korean leader Ngo Dinh Diem and American President John F. Kennedy in November of 1963, Lyndon B. Johnson ascended to the Presidency amidst a foreign policy nightmare. He personally did not see the value in the continued efforts in Vietnam, however he felt the United States had involved themselves so deeply that there was no easy way out. Johnson would ultimately escalate American involvement even deeper over his term in office.
Which of the following was a major challenge faced by American ground troops fighting in Vietnam?
Differentiating between South Vietnamese allies and the North Vietnamese enemy.
Maneuvering through sense swamps and jungles.
Mounting physical and mental health problems brought on by the war.
All of the above.
Question 10 Explanation:
American troops were not prepared for the complexities of the Vietnam War’s conditions. Terrain was difficult to navigate and there was little answer for dealing with the superior guerrilla tactics employed by the North Vietnamese. Making matters worse, Americans suffered in large numbers from diseases brought about by both chemical weaponry and the unfamiliar environment.
How was the Vietnam War initially received by the American public?
The Vietnam War gradually grew in popularity the longer it went on.
The war accentuated a generation gap between younger, draft-age Americans who generally opposed the war and older Americans and veterans who showed significantly less opposition.
The Vietnam War was supported by younger Americans to a significantly higher degree than older Americans and World War II veterans.
There was nearly universal support for the Vietnam War among the American public.
Question 11 Explanation:
Initially, the Vietnam War created a divide in American public opinion. Younger Americans organized a variety of opposition efforts to protest the war. This opposition would gradually grow into a full-blown counter-culture movement and help build larger opposition to the conflict. The longer the Vietnam War went on, the less popular it became.
Why did many of those who opposed the Vietnam War feel the selective service system was unfair?
There was no consideration given to Americans who were morally and/or religiously opposed to war.
Wealthier Americans and those who could afford to go to college were largely exempted or granted deferments from the draft leaving the working class to fight the unpopular war.
There was no consideration given to the wartime value of certain types of industrial and agricultural workers in assigning deferments.
All of the above.
Question 12 Explanation:
The deferment process from the Vietnam War draft became a point of contention for many opposed to the war. While there were exemptions granted to conscientious objectors as well as to those in fields like war industries and farming due to their work’s contribution to the war effort, middle and upper-class Americans were able to more easily secure deferments for reasons that were far less relevant to the war. Full-time college students and those with certain medical diagnoses (whether real or faked) typically got deferments without much resistance.
What was the result of the 1968 Tet offensive?
Americans and their South Vietnamese allies fought off the Vietcong and North Vietnamese.
The successful attack by the North Vietnamese and the Vietcong resulted in their acquisition of a substantial amount of South Vietnamese territory.
America became so disheartened by the poor performance of their South Vietnamese allies that they pulled out of the war within two months.
Both North and South Vietnam suffered such catastrophic losses that both sides agreed to a six-month cease-fire to replenish supplies and troops.
Question 13 Explanation:
The Tet offensive was a turning point in the war. The South Vietnamese and their American allies demonstrated the ability to fend off a North Vietnamese surge and successfully defend key bases and territory. Ironically, the victorious defense would lead to even further opposition to the war in America.
What was President Johnson’s response to General William Westmorland’s request for more troops following the success in repelling the Tet offensive?
Johnson agreed and increased drafting efforts.
Johnson agreed to draft more troops but refused to do so in the large numbers Westmorland was looking for.
Johnson chose the moment following the Tet offensive to halt further attacks, call for a reassessment of the war, and appealed to the North Vietnamese to begin peace talks.
Johnson refused Westmorland’s request, fired the general, and pushed for a renewed bombing effort rather than committing more ground troops to the war.
Question 14 Explanation:
President Johnson was facing growing opposition to the Vietnam War on the home front and was not eager to commit more American lives to, what he felt, was a lost cause. Rather than granting General Westmorland’s request for more troops, Johnson called off American bombing raids into North Vietnam. He appealed to the North Vietnamese military leaders to follow suit as a sign of a willingness to negotiate for peace.
What was the cause of the protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago?
Supporters of third-party candidate George Wallace wanted to raise awareness for their choice for president.
Pro-war democrats felt their voices were not being heard. They feared that the nomination of Vice President Hubert Humphrey signaled a premature end to the Vietnam War.
Republicans were angered over the lack of attention given to their nominee, Richard Nixon.
Democrats opposed to the Vietnam War felt that Vice President Hubert Humphrey’s nomination would mean a continuation of President Johnson’s failed war policies.
Question 15 Explanation:
Democratic primary candidates Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Senator Eugene McCarthy had ridden a wave of anti-war momentum that all but guaranteed the Democratic presidential nominee would be a clean break from the war policies of the Johnson administration. However, following the assassination of Robert Kennedy, Vice President Hubert Humphrey was able to edge out McCarthy to win the party’s nomination. Anti-war protesters gathered at the Democratic National Convention to protest that their views were not represented in the party’s candidate. The resulting violence on the third night of the convention would prove to be a public relations nightmare for the Humphrey campaign.
Which of the following was a key voting bloc targeted by Richard Nixon’s presidential campaign?
Nixon took a hard line promising to roll back integration laws and repeal the Civil Rights Act in order to appeal to Southern whites.
Nixon focused on winning the support of anti-war Americans who sought assurances that America would exit the war and outlined a very detailed timeline for doing so.
Nixon appealed to what he called the “silent majority” of Americans who wanted an end to the constant protests and violent uprisings taking place in America.
Nixon adopted many of the policies of the late Senator Robert F. Kennedy in an effort to try and woo the late senator’s supporters.
Question 16 Explanation:
Nixon’s primary key to victory was appealing to the group of Americans who had grown tired of the constant unrest in American society brought about by the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement. He pledged to be the champion of this so-called “silent majority” and ran on a platform of restoring law and order in American society. While Nixon’s campaign did gain support from conservative Southern whites and some anti-war democrats, his appeals to these groups tended to be vague themes rather than outlines of specific policies and agendas.
What was Vietnamization?
the term given to the influence of the Vietnam War on American popular culture
the term given to Richard Nixon’s plan to hand over much of the active participation in the Vietnam war to the South Vietnamese and gradually withdraw American troops
the term given to the influence of Vietnamese culture on American G.I.s
the term given to the North Vietnamese tactic of brainwashing American G.I.s to either abandon their missions or switch to the enemy’s side
Question 17 Explanation:
Nixon took office and immediately began drawing down American involvement in Vietnam. He reformed the selective service system to slow the amount of troops called into service, refocused American efforts on training the South Vietnamese military to take over the majority of combat responsibilities, and began reducing the number of American troops stationed in Vietnam. Behind the scenes, however, Nixon actually stepped up bombing raids on the North Vietnamese and their supply chains.
What was the reaction to Nixon’s decision to use American troops to intervene in the Cambodian civil war?
Despite a public backlash, members of Congress largely applauded the move as a key step in resisting the spread of communism.
Congress was not overly enthusiastic about Nixon’s decision, but they supported him and helped make the case to the American people that the intervention was not only worthwhile, but crucial.
There was tremendous anger and dissatisfaction from both Congress and the American people.
The reaction to the Cambodian intervention was muted due to the fact that Nixon withheld the bulk of the details about it from both Congress and the American public.
Question 18 Explanation:
Congress viewed Nixon’s decision to send American troops into Cambodia as not only an overreach but also potentially unconstitutional. Predictably, the American public was not enthusiastic about American lives being risked in yet another civil war conflict in Southeast Asia.
What effect did the Paris Peace Accords have on the Vietnam War?
The Paris Peace Accords settled the lingering disputes between the North and South Vietnamese and allowed the United States to back out of the region having successfully prevented the further spread of communism.
The Paris Peace Accords did not successfully end the Vietnam War, but they afforded the United States the opportunity to exit the conflict.
The Paris Peace Accords effectively ended the Vietnam War and allowed the French to reenter Vietnam in an oversight capacity.
The Paris Peace Accords shifted America’s commitment to supporting the South Vietnamese to the much larger NATO alliance. This new partnership for led an outmatched North Vietnam to surrender.
Question 19 Explanation:
North Vietnam signed the peace agreement in early 1973, but they were not particularly committed to standing by it. The conflict was not yet over. However, America would use the peace agreement as a means of pulling American troops and American prisoners of war out of Vietnam.
What was the ultimate outcome of the Vietnam War?
Despite a final offensive launched by the North Vietnamese, the Paris Peace Accords would ultimately be honored. The divide between North and South Vietnam would remain with a demilitarized border between the two.
The Paris Peace Accords led to the end of all fighting in Vietnam. Both North and South Vietnam agreed to hold national elections to unify the country.
The South Vietnamese disregarded the Paris Peace Accords and successfully took control over North Vietnam in a last-ditch offensive in the winter of 1975.
The North Vietnamese successfully infiltrated the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon and made all of Vietnam a single, unified communist nation.
Question 20 Explanation:
On April 30, 1975, Saigon was captured by the North Vietnamese. South Vietnam was forced to surrender, and all of Vietnam fell under communist rule.
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