World War 1 Quiz

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Question 1
The assassination of the presumptive heir of which country led to the outbreak of World War I?

A
Russia
B
France
C
Germany
D
Austria-Hungary
Question 1 Explanation: 
The Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo. The assassination caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia. Russia had pledged to defend Serbia, while Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary. France was allied with Russia, so almost all of Europe was quickly engulfed in war.
Question 2
Which strategic plan formed the basis for the German offensive in 1914?

A
War Plan Orange
B
Plan 17
C
Schlieffen Plan
D
Blitzkrieg
Question 2 Explanation: 
The Schlieffen Plan was developed between 1905 and 1906. The plan called for a quick victory against France so that German forces could redeploy to the Eastern Front before Russian troops could mobilize. Ultimately, fighting on the Western Front became a stalemate that led to trench warfare.
Question 3
The invasion of which country brought the United Kingdom into World War I?

A
France
B
Belgium
C
Russia
D
Serbia
Question 3 Explanation: 
Britain had guaranteed Belgian neutrality since 1839. German troops crossed into Belgium on August 4, 1914, which led to Britain entering the war.
Question 4
What battle in September 1914 halted the German advance towards Paris?

A
Battle of Mons
B
Battle of the Frontiers
C
First Battle of Ypres
D
Battle of the Marne
Question 4 Explanation: 
Known as the “Miracle on the Marne,” the British and French launched a counterattack against German forces. This halted the “Great Retreat” of Allied forces which had begun in August 1914. The Battle of the Marne meant it was unlikely Germany would be able to achieve a quick victory on the Western Front.
Question 5
The British and Japanese successfully laid siege to which German colonial possession in China during World War I?

A
Nanking
B
Chungking
C
Tsingtao
D
Shanghai
Question 5 Explanation: 
Tsingtao had been a German colony since 1898, which the British and Japanese viewed as a threat. The Japanese launched a siege and blockade in August 1914. The British sent several ships to assist. The German garrison held out for two months but Japanese troops overran the defenses in November 1914.
Question 6
Which battle marked the first use of chemical weapons (poison gas) on the Western Front?

A
Second Battle of Ypres
B
Battle of Verdun
C
Battle of the Marne
D
Battle of Passchendaele
Question 6 Explanation: 
Although prohibited under international law, the German Army deployed 168 tons of chlorine gas against French and colonial troops near the Belgian city of Ypres in May 1915. Because they relied on the prevailing winds to deploy the gas, many German soldiers were also killed or injured during the attack. Chlorine gas destroys the tissue of the eyes and lungs.
Question 7
The sinking of which ship, as part of Germany’s unrestricted U-boat campaign, helped push the United States into World War I?

A
RMS Titanic
B
RMS Lusitania
C
USS Kearny
D
USS Reuben James
Question 7 Explanation: 
The Lusitania sank in May 1915 after a German U-Boat fired torpedoes at it. Of the 1,900 people on board, approximately 1,200 died, including 128 Americans. Germany stated that the attack was justified since the ship was carrying hundreds of tons of war munitions. However, they temporarily suspended attacks on passenger liners. In January 1917 the German government announced that it would once again conduct full, unrestricted submarine warfare, and the United States declared war on April 6, 1917.
Question 8
What did the American “Preparedness” movement advocate?

A
An expansion of the US army and navy
B
Universal military training
C
Development of the atomic bomb
D
A & B
Question 8 Explanation: 
After the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915, many Americans felt the country would inevitably become involved in World War I. They felt the country was unprepared and wanted to strengthen the military. Most members of the “Preparedness” movement were east coast Republicans.
Question 9
Where did the Italians and Austro-Hungarians fight a dozen inconclusive battles during World War I?

A
Isonzo
B
Vittorio Veneto
C
Piave River
D
San Matteo
Question 9 Explanation: 
The Isonzo River flows through western Slovenia and northern Italy. The Austrians heavily fortified the region and repulsed a dozen Italian attacks between 1915 and 1917. More than 500,000 men on both sides were killed.
Question 10
The failed Allied amphibious landings at Gallipoli were intended to knock out which member of the Central Powers?

A
Italy
B
Germany
C
Austria-Hungary
D
The Ottoman Empire
Question 10 Explanation: 
The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers and attacked Russia in 1914. British, British Commonwealth, and French troops landed at Gallipoli in April 1915 but the attack quickly lost momentum and bogged down in trench warfare. The Allies withdrew their troops in January 1916.
Question 11
When did the Battle of the Somme occur?

A
1914
B
1915
C
1916
D
1917
Question 11 Explanation: 
The Battle of the Somme began in July 1916 and did not end until November. It was one of the bloodiest battles in human history, with more than one million casualties.
Question 12
Which battle was the largest engagement between surface naval ships of World War I?

A
Battle of Dogger Bank
B
Battle of Jutland
C
Battle of the Atlantic
D
Battle of Heligoland Bight
Question 12 Explanation: 
The Battle of Jutland occurred in 1916 and was an inconclusive engagement. The German fleet withdrew even though they inflicted more casualties on the British, which lost three battle cruisers while the Germans lost one battlecruiser and one dreadnought.
Question 13
Which engagement on the Eastern Front resulted in a Russian victory?

A
Brusilov Offensive
B
Masurian Lake
C
Battle of Tannenberg
D
None of the above
Question 13 Explanation: 
The Russians launched the Brusilov Offensive in June 1916. The Russians used new tactics to break through the German and Austrian lines. Both the Austrians and Russians suffered significant casualties.
Question 14
Which battle saw the first use of tanks during World War I?

A
Battle of the Somme
B
Battle of Verdun
C
Battle of Arras
D
Battle of Passchendaele
Question 14 Explanation: 
In addition to being one of the bloodiest battles of the war, the Somme also marked a new era of armored warfare. British Mark I tanks were equipped with machine guns and 57mm cannons. Of the 32 tanks that participated in the battle, only nine reached German lines. However, they did eliminate several German strongpoints.
Question 15
Which engagement was the longest battle of World War I?

A
Battle of the Somme
B
Battle of Verdun
C
Battle of Arras
D
Battle of Passchendaele
Question 15 Explanation: 
Almost 2.5 million men fought at Verdun. The battle began in February 1916 and ended nine months later. More than 700,000 men were killed or wounded during the battle.
Question 16
What was the name of the German defensive line on the Western Front between 1916 and 1917?

A
Maginot Line
B
Gothic Line
C
Hindenburg Line
D
Ludendorff Line
Question 16 Explanation: 
The Germans built the Hindenburg Line during the winter of 1916–1917. It covered 90 miles of territory near Arras in northern France. It included many strong defensive positions and the Allies did not break through until 1918.
Question 17
Where did T. E. Lawrence lead a successful uprising against the Central Powers?

A
Asia
B
Africa
C
The Middle East
D
Belgium
Question 17 Explanation: 
Lawrence studied history in college and worked as an archaeologist. He became an intelligence officer in 1914 and served as a liaison between the British Army and Arab rebels. He helped the rebels attack Ottoman railways and capture several cities.
Question 18
Who were the Harlem Hellfighters?

A
A group of Italian-Americans who fought in the US Army.
B
A group of African-Americans who fought in the US Army.
C
A group of African-Americans who fought in the French Air Force.
D
A group of German-Americans who fought in the US Army.
Question 18 Explanation: 
The 369th Infantry Regiment was primarily composed of African-Americans and Puerto Ricans. It was the nation’s first all-Black regiment. They won a number of medals while fighting during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in 1918.
Question 19
Which battle included the explosion of subterranean mines that were one of the largest man-made detonations until the atomic bombs?

A
Battle of the Somme
B
Battle of Verdun
C
Battle of Arras
D
Battle of Messines
Question 19 Explanation: 
In 1917, British forces dug tunnels under the German lines at Messines, in Flanders. They placed more than 450 tons of explosives beneath the German defenses and detonated them on June 7, 1917. Approximately 10,000 German soldiers died in the massive explosion. The Allies were able to push back the Germans and recapture territory.
Question 20
The Zimmerman telegram was intended to draw which country into the war on the side of the Central Powers?

A
Turkey
B
Canada
C
Mexico
D
Austria-Hungary
Question 20 Explanation: 
The German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico. It offered Mexico financial assistance if its army would attack the United States. The Mexicans ignored the offer, but the British intercepted the message and turned it over to the US government. Zimmerman admitted the message was authentic and America declared war soon afterward.
Question 21
When did the United States enter World War I?

A
1915
B
1916
C
1917
D
1918
Question 21 Explanation: 
The United States did not declare war on Germany until April 6, 1917. The declaration came after numerous incidents, including the Zimmerman Telegram and the sinking of the RMS Lusitania. President Woodrow Wilson said American troops would “make the world safe for democracy.”
Question 22
When did the Bolsheviks launch a revolution in Russia?

A
1915
B
1916
C
1917
D
1918
Question 22 Explanation: 
Russia had suffered a number of defeats during World War I. Political, social, and economic pressure led to a revolution in March 1917. Because a provisional government continued to prosecute the war against Germany, the Bolsheviks took power in November.
Question 23
Which pilot was America’s top flying ace in World War I?

A
Richard Bong
B
Eddie Rickenbacker
C
Hubert “Hub” Zemke
D
Robin Olds
Question 23 Explanation: 
Rickenbacker was a race car driver and joined the US army in 1917. He scored 26 kills and later became an airline executive. Bong, Zemke, and Olds were all aces from World War II.
Question 24
Which American won the Medal of Honor for capturing 132 Germans during the Battle of St. Mihiel?

A
Audie Murphy
B
Dan Daly
C
Alvin York
D
Ernst E. Evans
Question 24 Explanation: 
Alvin York was a conscientious objector from Tennessee. After being drafted into the army he was conflicted, but finally decided to serve. He led an attack on a German machine gun nest and eventually captured 132 enemy soldiers and 35 machine guns.
Question 25
The Battle of Belleau Wood plays an important part in the lore of which part of the armed forces?

A
The US Marine Corps
B
The Lafayette Escadrille
C
The Lost Battalion
D
The Harlem Hellfighters
Question 25 Explanation: 
The US Marines suffered heavy losses while attacking German positions in the Belleau Wood in 1918. They captured 1,600 Germans and this battle supposedly marked the origin of the “devil dog” moniker. Several songs and memorials have commemorated the sacrifices of the US Marines at Belleau Wood.
Question 26
Which French commander was known as the “Lion of Verdun?”

A
Joseph Joffre
B
Philippe Petain
C
Robert Nivelle
D
Ferdinand Foch
Question 26 Explanation: 
Petain joined the French army in 1876 and was ready to retire when World War I began. He was quickly promoted to general and commanded French forces during the Battle of Verdun. He rotated soldiers out of the front line every two weeks and relied on artillery to pummel German forces.
Question 27
Which British officer was known as the “Butcher of the Somme?”

A
Douglas Haig
B
John French
C
Horatio Kitchener
D
Bernard Montgomery
Question 27 Explanation: 
Haig joined the British Army in 1885 and fought in the Sudan and South Africa. He commanded British troops during the Battle of the Somme and critics labeled him a butcher because of the excessive casualties incurred during the battle. On the first day of the offensive, the British suffered 57,000 casualties, including 19,000 killed.
Question 28
Which general commanded the American Expeditionary Force in France during World War I?

A
Douglas MacArthur
B
Billy Mitchell
C
John Pershing
D
George Patton
Question 28 Explanation: 
Pershing joined the US Army in 1886. He became a general and led US forces in a punitive raid against Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa. He also commanded American troops in Europe during World War I. He visited the tomb of Marquis de Lafayette and declared “Lafayette, we are here.” He retired in 1924 and died in 1948.
Question 29
Which German commander preferred to focus resources and manpower on the Eastern Front?

A
Paul von Hindenburg
B
Erich von Falkenhayn
C
Carl von Clausewitz
D
Gerhard von Scharnhorst
Question 29 Explanation: 
Hindenburg joined the army in 1866 and retired as a general in 1911. He returned to active duty in 1914 and commanded German troops on the Eastern Front. He believed defeating Russia should be the first priority—not the Western Front. He later became president of the Weimar Republic and died in 1933.
Question 30
Which pilot was the highest scoring flying ace of World War I?

A
Manfred von Richthofen
B
Billy Bishop
C
Rene Fonck
D
Herman Goering
Question 30 Explanation: 
Richthofen was also known as the Red Baron. He joined the German cavalry in 1911 and joined the flying corps in 1915. He scored 80 victories and became commander of Jagdgeschwader 1—known as the “Flying Circus.” Richthofen was shot down and killed on April 21, 1918.
Question 31
Which of these events occurred on the US home front during World War I?

A
Creation of victory gardens
B
More women entering the workforce
C
The Great Migration
D
All of the above
Question 31 Explanation: 
Civilians created victory gardens to boost morale and bolster the food supply (even through rationing was not required). Many men went overseas to fight, so women began to fill their positions, including jobs in heavy industry. Thousands of African-Americans from the South also migrated to the North in search of jobs. These last two events had a significant impact on postwar American society.
Question 32
Which of the following was NOT a part of President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points?

A
Creation of the United Nations
B
Freedom of the seas
C
Disarmament
D
Free trade
Question 32 Explanation: 
Wilson advocated for the creation of a League of Nations,but the US Senate voted not to join. The United Nations was created after World War II.
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